Polyacrylamide (PAM) is an important type of water-soluble polymer with special physical and chemical properties. It is widely used in various industries of the national economy and enjoys the title of “a hundred additives”.
Polyacrylamide (PAM) is an important type of water-soluble polymer with special physical and chemical properties. It is widely used in various industries of the national economy and enjoys the title of “a hundred additives”. With the rapid development of China's industrialization, the application range of PAM is expanding and the demand is increasing. The PAM production technology and its application have always been the research areas of concern.
PAM products mainly have three major dosage forms: aqueous colloid, powder and emulsion. Each type has different ionic products, which can be divided into three categories: non-ionic (NPAM), cationic (APAM) and anionic (CPAM). These polymers may be homopolymers or copolymers. At present, the largest use of PAM in China is tertiary oil recovery in oil fields, followed by water treatment and papermaking. Its consumption structure accounts for 81% of oilfield exploitation, 9% of water treatment, 5% of papermaking, 2% of mines, and 3% of others. %. The world's most widely used are water treatment and papermaking, and the consumption and consumption structure ratio of acrylamide polymers vary from country to country. PAM applications mainly include petroleum industry, water treatment, paper industry, textile industry, printing and dyeing industry, pharmaceutical industry, agriculture, construction industry, mining and metallurgy industry.
PAM is mainly used in the petroleum industry for the following aspects
1, Enhanced oil recovery
Among the three methods of oil recovery for enhanced oil recovery, the use of PAM as an oil displacing agent plays an important role. The function of adding PAM is to adjust the rheology of the injected water, increase the viscosity of the driving liquid, improve the water flooding efficiency, reduce the water phase permeability in the formation, and enable the water and oil to flow forward at a constant speed to increase the mining rate.
2, used as a drilling fluid regulator
PAM can be used as a thickener, stabilizer and settling flocculant for drilling mud. Adding polyacrylamide to the drilling mud can increase the consistency of the mud, increase the suspension force, make the mud evenly dispersed, control the water loss, increase the stability, reduce the friction and improve the cementing speed.
3, used as a fracturing fluid additive
The fracturing fluid formed by PAM cross-linking has the advantages of high viscosity, low friction, good suspension capacity, low fluid loss, good viscosity stability, low residue, wide supply, and convenient preparation and low cost. widely used.
PAM and its derivatives contain a large number of amide groups in the molecular chain, have good water solubility, excellent flocculation and adsorption properties, can be affinity with many substances, and adsorb to form hydrogen bonds, which are used as flocculation in water treatment. It can be used in the treatment of municipal sewage, domestic sewage, industrial wastewater, etc., as well as various groundwater and industrial suspension solid-liquid separation projects. PAM is currently the most widely used and most efficient polymer organic synthetic flocculant, sedimenting agent and filter aid. Its flocculation effect is far superior to inorganic flocculant. It has many varieties, complete specifications, small dosage and low cost. The efficiency is high, the generated sludge is less, and the post-treatment is easy. PAM is used as a flocculant in water treatment, mainly in the following cases:
1. Reduce the amount of flocculant. Under the premise of achieving the same water quality, PAM can be used as a coagulant in combination with other flocculants to greatly reduce the amount of flocculant used.
2. Improve water quality. Used in combination with activated carbon in raw water treatment, it can be used for coagulation and clarification of suspended particles in domestic water; as sludge dewatering in sewage treatment; as an important formula in industrial water treatment.
3. Improve floc strength and sedimentation rate, reduce the amount of inorganic flocculant used, and avoid corrosion and scaling of the circulating cooling system.
Textile, printing and dyeing industry
In the textile industry, PAM, as a sizing agent and finishing agent for fabrics, can produce a soft, crease-resistant, mold-resistant protective layer, utilizing its strong hygroscopic properties, good film forming properties and smoothness of the film. High strength, low elasticity, good affinity to fibers, good mutual solubility with natural pulp and synthetic slurry, can reduce the breakage rate when spinning spun yarn, and prevent static electricity and flame retardant of fabric. When used as a printing and dyeing auxiliary, PAM can make the product have strong adhesion fastness and high vividness. It can also be used as a bleaching non-silicon polymer stabilizer and leveling agent textile auxiliary. In addition, PAM can also be used as a high-efficiency purifying agent, decolorizing agent, etc. for textile printing and dyeing wastewater.
As a soil structure improver, PAM can effectively improve soil structure, increase cohesion between soil surface particles, increase soil surface roughness, reduce soil bulk density, maintain soil particle and pore structure stability, prevent soil crust and increase soil infiltration. Seepage, prevent soil loss and inhibit evaporation of soil moisture. By improving the soil structure, PAM increases the number of soil water-stable aggregates, enhances the permeability and permeability of the soil, and effectively enhances the soil's corrosion resistance. The soil treated with PAM has good water retention and soil conservation. , fertilizer, increase production.
PAM and hydrophobic association derivatives have hydrophilicity and hydrophobic groups on the molecular chain, making their hydrogels temperature sensitive. Its swelling in water is intense at a certain critical temperature with small changes in temperature. The mutation, volume change can be tens to hundreds of times, can be made into intelligent gel, used for controlled release of drugs and enzyme entrapment, protein electrophoresis, artificial organ materials, contact lenses and so on. PAM hydrogels have been used in plastic surgery since the 1980s. Most of them are used for breast enlargement and shaping. They can also be used for soft tissue filling, such as thin lips and thick legs. In addition, PAM can be used as a flocculating agent for separating antibiotics, as a binding adhesive for tablets, and as a drug release agent.
The application of PAM in the paper industry is mainly manifested in two aspects: one is to increase the retention rate of fillers, pigments, etc., to reduce the loss of raw materials and environmental pollution; the second is to improve the strength of paper. PAM is used as a dispersing agent to improve the uniformity of the paper, promote the dispersion of long fibers during papermaking, increase the stability of the pulp and the adhesion of fillers and pigments, and act as a reinforcing agent to effectively improve the paper. Strength, improve the tear resistance and porosity of paper; use as retention aid, water filter, and settling agent, can increase the retention rate of filler particles and fine fibers, accelerate the dehydration speed, and improve the recovery equipment such as filtration and sedimentation. Efficiency and reduce pollution.
Mining and metallurgy industry
The application of PAM in the mining and metallurgy industry mainly involves mining, beneficiation and metallurgy. In these processes, a large amount of water is needed. Finally, it is often necessary to recover useful solids in the water and purify and recycle the wastewater. The use of PAM as a flocculant and filter aid can promote the rapid sinking of useful solid minerals, accelerate the concentration of fine materials, liquid clarification and dewatering of mud cakes, thereby improving production efficiency and reducing tailings loss and water consumption. Reduce equipment investment and processing costs and avoid environmental pollution. Uranium ore extraction is one of the earliest important applications of PAM. When leaching uranium ore with acid or sulfonate solution, it is very effective to add PAM for concentration and filtration of leachate. PAM is mainly used in two aspects in the coal preparation plant: one is to accelerate the sedimentation of the slime and reduce the concentration of overflow water in the deep purification and concentrating machine of the slime water; the other is to improve the filter cake in the vacuum filter or filter press. Structure, reduce filter cake moisture and increase filtration speed.
In the construction industry, PAM can enhance the hardness of gypsum cement, improve the production capacity of the settling tank in the manufacture of wet cement and the filterability of cement, improve the uniformity of kiln materials, and accelerate the dewatering speed of asbestos cement. When cutting metal or marble with a high-pressure water column, adding a small amount of PAM to the water can greatly improve the cutting efficiency. PAM can be used as a coating thickening dispersant, a sawstone sheet coolant and a ceramic bonding agent, and can be used as an adhesive for wallboard (paper), asbestos products and the like. PAM can also be used as a grouting material for deposits, ponds, dams, foundations, etc., which can enhance the robustness of soil aggregate structure and increase the load carrying capacity of soil structure. PAM gels can be used for caulking, repair and plugging of buildings. In addition, PAM can also be used as a chemical grout for water blocking and sand fixation in tunnels, dams, etc., and as a preservative for underwater and underground buildings.
In the electroplating industry, the addition of PAM improves the quality of the metal in the cathode deposition and increases the current efficiency, which can homogenize the metal precipitate and make the coating brighter. In the aquaculture industry, PAM improves water quality and increases the light transmission properties of water, thereby improving water photosynthesis. Adding a small amount of PAM copolymer to the pool water can inhibit the evaporation of water from the surface of the swimming pool. PAM hydrogels can also be used in gel explosives, gel electrolytes for batteries, gel amides used in rocket fuels, chromatography columns, and the like. In addition, PAM is applied to the surface of the ship to reduce navigational resistance. PAM can also be used as a sand mold glue in metal casting, a metal rust protection film and a stabilizer for inks and latex paints.
Main product models and technical indicators
|Molecular weight ≥ 25 million, viscosity ≥ 1000mpa.s / 3rpm.
|Polymer flooding and polymer profile control, fine powder used as high temperature and high salinity shale gas pressure crack.
|Molecular weight ≥ 25 million, particle size 60 mesh pass rate ≥ 95% three minutes instant solution, fan viscosity in 2% KCL and 200ppm calcium ion water ≥ 18
|Drilling, fracturing, instead of emulsion polymer, fine powder is used as high temperature and high salinity shale gas pressure crack.
|Molecular weight ≥ 25 million, rotational viscosity ≥ 40mpa.s (2410mg / L salinity)
|Polymer flooding and polymer profile control.
|Molecular weight ≥ 22 million, the viscosity of fans in 600ppm calcium ion water ≥ 16
|Polymer flooding and polymer profile control, drilling, fracturing, replacing emulsion polymer, fine powder used as high temperature and high salinity shale gas pressure crack.
|1825 type, 1815 type
|Molecular weight ≥ 16 million, hydrolysis degree <10-25, solid content ≥ 89.5%
|Molecular weight ≥ 20 million, funnel viscosity more than 90 seconds (24 hours without degradation)
|Molecular weight ≥ 16 million, rotational viscosity ≥ 45mpa.s (950mg / L mineralization)
|Polymer flooding and polymer profile control, beneficiation water treatment, fine powder used as high temperature and high salinity shale gas pressure crack.
|Molecular weight ≥ 15 million, degree of hydrolysis 20-30%
|The coal washing and ore dressing wastewater treatment has strong versatility in mineral processing and wide adaptability.
|The degree of hydrolysis is ≤ 5%, and the molecular weight is ≥ 9 million.
|Wash coal, beneficiation, ore washing.
|The degree of hydrolysis is ≤10%, and the molecular weight is ≥14 million.
|High salinity shale gas pressure cracking, coal washing, beneficiation, sewage treatment, etc.
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