The application of high-viscosity polyacrylamide in 7 aspects
1. Used as an oil displacement agent in the tertiary oil recovery methods to enhance oil recovery, using PAM as an oil displacement agent. The function of the polymer is to adjust the rheology of the injected water, increase the viscosity of the driving fluid, improve the efficiency of water flooding, reduce the permeability of the aqueous phase in the formation, and make the water and oil flow forward at a uniform speed. When high-viscosity polyacrylamide is flooded, surfactants and additives are first formulated into a microemulsion with ultra-low interfacial tension into the water injection well, then injected with polymer solution, and finally injected with water. The water flows forward in a plunger to displace residual oil dispersed in the pores and enhance oil recovery. PAM for triapheresis generally contains 10% to 50% wave groups, and the molecular weight ranges from hundreds of thousands to tens of thousands.
2. Used as a water blocking regulator in the oilfield production process, due to the heterogeneity of the formation, often produce flooding problems, need to block water, the essence is to change the water in the formation of the scab finally dies, the scabs in a night or day in the seepage state, in order to reduce the oilfield water production, maintain formation energy, improve the final recovery of the oilfield purpose. PAM chemical water blocking agent has a large dosage, has the selectivity of oil and water permeability, the permeability of oil can be reduced by up to more than 10%, and the permeability of water can be reduced by more than 90%. Oil layer with good homogeneity and high average permeability can be selected with PAM with medium molecular weight (Sx106-7x10); For fractured oil layers with low bedrock permeability or oil layers with large changes in permeability, polymer fractured oil layers or oil layers with large changes in permeability can be selected, and high molecular weight (10x107) PAM can be selected. PAM can be used without crosslinking, and can also be crosslinked with aluminum salts, chromium salts, zirconium salts, etc. to form gels, and some resins can be added to form a compatible polymer network to make it have higher temperature resistance.
3. Used as drilling fluid regulator as drilling fluid regulator, partial hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) is often used, which is obtained by PAM hydrolysis. Its function is to adjust the rheology of drilling fluid, carry cuttings, lubricate drill bits, reduce fluid loss, etc. The specific gravity of drilling mud modulated by PAM is low, because the content is small, reducing the pressure and blockage of the oil and gas layer, easy to find the oil and gas layer, and conducive to drilling, drilling speed The scabs in the nest finally died, and the degree of deteriorating in a night or day was 19% higher than that of calcium treatment mud, and about 45% higher than the mechanical drilling speed, in addition, it can greatly reduce drilling accidents, reduce equipment wear, and prevent well leakage and collapse. The fracturing process used as fracturing fluid additive is an important production enhancement measure for the development of dense layer in the oilfield, and its function is to open the passage of rock, let the oil flow through, and the fracturing fluid formed by crosslinking methylene PAM has high viscosity, low friction resistance and good sand suspension capacity.
4. Used in the mining process of the mining industry, a large amount of water is usually used, and finally it is often necessary to recover the useful solids in the water, and purify and recycle the wastewater. The application of PAM flocculation can promote the sinking of agglomerates, the clarification of liquids and the dewatering of mud cakes, thereby improving production efficiency, reducing tailings loss and water consumption, reducing equipment investment and processing costs, and avoiding environmental pollution. Application in textile, printing and dyeing industry In the textile industry, polyacrylamide is used as a sizing agent and finishing agent for fabric treatment, which can generate a soft, wrinkle-proof, anti-mold protective layer. With its strong hygroscopicity, it can reduce the fracture rate when spinning fine yarn. Polyacrylamide as a post-treatment agent can prevent static electricity and flame retardancy of the fabric.
5. When used as a printing and dyeing auxiliary, polyacrylamide can make the product adhesion fastness, high brightness, and the spasm in the nest finally dies, and the spasm can be used as a bleaching non-silicon polymer stabilizer in a night or day. In addition, polyacrylamide can also be used for efficient purification of textile printing and dyeing wastewater. Water treatment non-ionic PAM is used in wastewater treatment in chemical, petroleum extraction, metallurgy, papermaking, electroplating, coal and other industries. Strengthen the rapid solid-liquid separation of wastewater, and quickly flocculate a small amount of mechanical impurities contained in sewage to achieve the purpose of sewage purification. When used, the general control dosage is 1-15ppm, and the water system PH is 6-8 is suitable; Cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) is suitable for the treatment of papermaking water. Papermaking PAM is used as a papermaking auxiliary, adding PAM with different molecular weights and functional groups to increase filler retention, paper fiber dry and wet enhancement and improve surface properties, ink adsorption and other functions. The use of PAM in papermaking began with anionic PAM thirty years ago, and then various modified PAMs developed rapidly, especially the copolymerization of AM and other monomers and the copolymerization of AM and starch.
6. Used as food processing PAM can be used as a chemical additive in the sugar industry.
7, can be used for a variety of meat, fruit and vegetable cleaning water purification and fruit wine and beer clarification, the use of high molecular weight PAM (hydrolysis degree 25% to 3o%), this good performance flocculant for syrup nest in the scab finally died, the spades in a night or day to clarify the treatment, can remove as much non-sugar as possible, improve quality.