Where does high-viscosity polyacrylamide work
1. High-viscosity polyacrylamide is used as oil displacement agent
In the tertiary oil recovery methods of enhanced oil recovery, PAM is used as an oil displacement agent. The function of the polymer is to adjust the rheology of the injected water, increase the viscosity of the driving fluid, improve the efficiency of water flooding, reduce the permeability of the aqueous phase in the formation, and make the water and oil flow forward at a uniform speed.
When using micelle/polymer flooding, surfactants and additives are first formulated into a microemulsion with ultra-low interfacial tension into the water injection well, then the polymer solution is injected, and finally the water is injected. The water flows forward in a plunger to displace residual oil dispersed in the pores and enhance oil recovery. The PAM used for triplepation generally contains 10% to 50% wave groups, and the molecular weight ranges from hundreds of thousands to tens of thousands.
2. High-viscosity polyacrylamide is used as a water blocking adjuster
In the oilfield production process, due to the heterogeneity of the formation, the problem of flooding often occurs, and it is necessary to block the water, the essence of which is to change the seepage state of the water in the formation, so as to reduce the water production of the oilfield, maintain the energy of the formation, and improve the final recovery rate of the oilfield.
PAM chemical water blocking agent has a large dosage, has the selectivity of oil and water permeability, the permeability of oil can be reduced by up to more than 10%, and the permeability of water can be reduced by more than 90%.
Oil layer with good homogeneity and high average permeability can be selected with PAM with medium molecular weight (Sx106-7x10); For fractured oil layers with low bedrock permeability or oil layers with large changes in permeability, polymer fractured oil layers or oil layers with large changes in permeability can be selected, and high molecular weight (10x107) PAM can be selected.
PAM can be used without crosslinking, and can also be crosslinked with aluminum salts, chromium salts, zirconium salts, etc. to form gels, and some resins can be added to form a compatible polymer network to make it have higher temperature resistance.
3. High-viscosity polyacrylamide is used as drilling fluid regulator
As a drilling fluid conditioner, partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM), which is obtained by hydrolysis of PAM, is often used. Its function is to adjust the rheology of drilling fluid, carry cuttings, lubricate drill bits, reduce fluid loss, etc.
The drilling mud modulated by PAM has a low specific gravity, because the content is small, reducing the pressure and blockage of the oil and gas layer, easy to find the oil and gas layer, and conducive to drilling, the drilling speed is 19% higher than the calcium treatment mud, and about 45% higher than the mechanical drilling speed, in addition, it can greatly reduce the drilling accident, reduce equipment wear, and prevent well leakage and collapse.
Where does high-viscosity polyacrylamide work
4. High-viscosity polyacrylamide is used as fracturing fluid additive
The fracturing process is an important production enhancement measure for the development of dense layer in the oilfield, and its function is to open the passage of rock, let the oil flow, and the fracturing fluid formed by crosslinking methylene PAM has high viscosity, low friction resistance and good sand suspension capacity.
5. High viscosity polyacrylamide is used in mining and metallurgical industry
In the mining process, a large amount of water is usually used, and at the end it is often necessary to recover the useful solids in the water and purify the wastewater for recycling. The application of PAM flocculation can promote the sinking of agglomerates, the clarification of liquids and the dewatering of mud cakes, thereby improving production efficiency, reducing tailings loss and water consumption, reducing equipment investment and processing costs, and avoiding environmental pollution.
6. High viscosity polyacrylamide is used in textile, printing and dyeing industry applications
In the textile industry, polyacrylamide is used as a sizing agent and finishing agent for fabric treatment, which can form a soft, wrinkle-proof and anti-mold protective layer. With its strong hygroscopicity, it can reduce the fracture rate when spinning fine yarn. Polyacrylamide as a post-treatment agent can prevent static electricity and flame retardancy of the fabric.
When used as a printing and dyeing auxiliary, polyacrylamide can make the product adhesion fastness, high brightness, and can also be used as a bleaching non-silicon polymer stabilizer. In addition, polyacrylamide can also be used for efficient purification of textile printing and dyeing wastewater.
7. High viscosity polyacrylamide is used for water treatment
Non-ionic PAM is used in wastewater treatment in chemical, petroleum extraction, metallurgy, papermaking, electroplating, coal and other industries. Strengthen the rapid solid-liquid separation of wastewater, and quickly flocculate a small amount of mechanical impurities contained in sewage to achieve the purpose of sewage purification. When used, the general control dosage is 1-15ppm, and the water system PH is 6-8 is suitable; Cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) is suitable for the treatment of papermaking water.
8. High viscosity polyacrylamide is used for papermaking
PAM is used as a papermaking auxiliary, adding PAM with different molecular weights and different functional groups to increase filler retention, paper fiber drying and wet enhancement and improve surface properties, ink adsorption and other functions.
The use of PAM in papermaking began with anionic PAM thirty years ago, and then various modified PAMs developed rapidly, especially the copolymerization of AM with other monomers and the copolymerization of AM and starch.